Post by Angel Knightwaters on Jan 17, 2018 20:48:42 GMT -7
LESSON ONE: INTRO TO ANCIENT RUNES
Welcome to Ancient Runes! Today we are going to do a little introduction to Ancient Runes and talk about some of the basics of it. Our main objectives to this lesson is: What are Runes? Talk a little bit about the Runic alphabets, dabble into the futharks, and then finally a little bit more information on the academic study of Ancient Runes.
WHAT ARE RUNES?
Runes are basically like our alphabet, only they are runic alphabets and they were used to write various Germanic languages before our own Latin Alphabet came about. There are other variants of the runic alphabet known as futhark or fupark. (These two words are obtained from the first six letters of their respected alphabets: F, U, P, A, R, K); along with the Anglo-Saxon variant is futhorc or fuporc. Us wizarding folks call it the "Study of Ancient Runes"; however, the muggles have another version of it called "Runology" which is the study of the runic alphabets, inscriptions, and rune stones along with their history.
Elder Futhark (around 150-800 AD), The Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (400-1100 AD), and the Younger Futhark (800-1100 AD) are the three best known runic alphabets. The Younger Futhark is divided further into the long-branch runes, short-branch or Rok runes, and the saviosa or Halsinge runes. It then developed further into the Medieval runes (1100-1500 AD), and the Dalecarilian runes (c. 1500-1800 AD). The runic alphabet is derived from the Old Italic Scripts of antiquity, with the addition of some innovations. The oldest inscriptions are found in Denmark and northern Germany, not near Italy.
There are six types of runic alphabets found from the second century all the way through till the nineteenth century. They are: The Elder Futhark (2nd to 8th Centuries), Anglo-Saxon runes (5th to 11th centuries), Marcomannic runes (8th to 9th centuries, younger futhark (9th to 10th centuries, medieval runes (12th to 15th centuries), and finally Dalecarlian runes (16th to 19th centuries). We will learn a little more about each one in later lessons.
The study of these runes was first originated in the Renaissance period by Johannes Bureus (1568-1652), and he had viewed the runes as a means of holy or magical in a kabbalistic sense. From there Olof Rudbeck Sr (1630-1702) and had presented it in his collection Atlantica. Continuing from there Anders Celsius (1701-1744) extended the study through the means of science and traveled all around Sweden to examine the runstenar (runestones). In the 19th century which was also known as the "golden age of philology", runology formed a specialized branch of Germanic linguistics.
01. In your own words, what are runes? 02. What are all of the variants of the runic alphabet? 03. What is runology? 04. What are the three best known Runic Alphabets and what are their dates? 05. Where are the oldest inscriptions found? 06. What are the six types of runes? 07. Who was the first person to study runes and what period did it originate in? 08. Who was the last person to study runes up until the 20th century?
[div style="font-family:arial narrow;font-size:20px;text-align:right;letter-spacing:3px;font-style:bold;"][b]HOMEWORK LESSON ONE[/b][/div] [blockquote]01. In your own words, what are runes? - ANSWER HERE 02. What are all of the variants of the runic alphabet? - ANSWER HERE 03. What is runology? - ANSWER HERE 04. What are the three best known Runic Alphabets and what are their dates? - ANSWER HERE 05. Where are the oldest inscriptions found? - ANSWER HERE 06. What are the six types of runes? - ANSWER HERE 07. Who was the first person to study runes and what period did it originate in? - ANSWER HERE 08. Who was the last person to study runes up until the 20th century? - ANSWER HERE[/blockquote]
Post by Angel Knightwaters on Feb 8, 2018 19:22:18 GMT -7
LESSON TWO: THE HISTORY OF RUNES
Hello everyone and welcome back to Ancient Runes, in this lesson we will be studying the history of the runes. Throughout history, runes have developed after the Old Italic Alphabets. The runes that we know today, have been set back all the way to the first century BC! Our topics in this lesson are the following: The Beginning Runes, The First Inscriptions, Runes and Their Magical Use, and finally the Basics of the Alphabets and the summary of the lesson. If you guys have any questions on the lessons or you're homework don't hesitate to ask me. (angel1522)
THE BEGINNINGS OF THE RUNES
The runes developed centuries after the Old Italic alphabets from which they are probably historically derived. The debate on the development of the runic script concerns the question regarding which of the Italic alphabets should be taken as their point of origin and which, if any, signs should be considered original innovations added to the letters found in the Italic scripts. The historical context of the script's origin is the cultural contact between Germanic people, who often served as mercenaries in the Roman army, and the Italian peninsula during the Roman imperial period (1st century BC to 5th century AD). The formation of the Elder Futhark was complete by the early 5th century, with the Kylver Stone being the first evidence of the futhark ordering as well as of the p rune.
THE FIRST INSCRIPTIONS
Runic engravings from the 400-year period 150–550 Advertisement are depicted as "Period I". These engravings are for the most part in Senior Futhark, but the set of letter shapes and bindrunes utilized is distant from standardized. Outstandingly the j, s, and ŋ runes experience significant alterations, while others, such as p and ï, stay unattested through and through earlier to the to begin with full futhark push on the Kylver Stone (c. 400 Advertisement). Artifacts such as spear heads or shield mounts have been found that bear runic checking that may be dated to 200 Advertisement, as proven by artifacts found over northern Europe in Schleswig (North Germany), Fyn, Sjælland, Jylland (Denmark), and Skåne (Sweden). Earlier—but less reliable—artifacts have been found in Meldorf, Süderdithmarschen, northern Germany; these incorporate brooches and combs found in graves, most strikingly the Meldorf fibula, and are assumed to have the most punctual markings taking after runic engravings.
RUNES AND THEIR MAGICAL USE
Most people have used the runes in a dark matter which is to bring people back from the dead. In the stanza 157 of Hávamál; Odin recounts a spell which is the following:
Þat kann ek it tolfta, ef ek sé á tré uppi váfa virgilná,: svá ek ríst ok í rúnum fák, at sá gengr gumi ok mælir við mik.
I know a twelfth one if i see up in a tree, a dangling corpse in a nooose, I can so carve and color the runes, that the man walks and talks with me.
The soonest runic engravings found on ancient rarities give the name of either the skilled worker or the proprietor, or infrequently, remain a semantic riddle. Because of this, it is conceivable that the early runes were but rather utilized a basic composition framework, but instead as enchanted signs to be utilized for charms. Albeit some say the runes were utilized for divination, there is no immediate confirmation to propose they were ever utilized as a part of along these lines. The name rune itself, interpreted as meaning "mystery, something shrouded", appears to show that information of the runes was initially viewed as exclusive, or limited to a world class. The 6th-century Björketorp Runestone warns in Proto-Norse using the word rune in both senses:
Haidzruno runu, falahak haidera, ginnarunaz. Arageu haeramalausz uti az. Weladaude, sa'z þat barutz. Uþarba spa. I, master of the runes(?) conceal here runes of power. Incessantly (plagued by) maleficence, (doomed to) insidious death (is) he who breaks this (monument). I prophesy destruction / prophecy of destruction.
Charm words, for example, auja, laþu, laukaʀ, and most generally, alu, show up on various Relocation period Senior Futhark engravings and in addition variations and condensing of them. Much theory and study has been delivered on the potential importance of these engravings. Rhyming gatherings show up on some early bracteates that likewise might be supernatural in reason, for example, salusalu and luwatuwa. Further, an engraving on the Gummarp Runestone (500– 700 Advertisement) gives an obscure engraving portraying the utilization of three runic letters took after by the Senior Futhark f-rune composed three times in progression.
The absence of broad information on recorded utilization of the runes has not prevented present day creators from extrapolating whole frameworks of divination from what couple of specifics exist, more often than not approximately in light of the reproduced names of the runes and extra outside impact. A current investigation of runic enchantment proposes that runes were utilized to make supernatural questions, for example, ornaments, yet not in a way that would show that runic composition was any more inalienably mystical, than were other written work frameworks, for example, Latin or Greek.
THE BASICS OF THE ALPHABETS/SUMMARY
In our next lesson, we will start learning about the alphabets and what each of the letters mean and represent as a hole. However; for now I will give you a basic run down of what the first alphabet looks like the following is the first one we will study, the Elder Futhark.
We will discover more information about the alphabets later on in the lessons. Next year/term I will be providing advanced levels of the Runes. Thus, you can study more information about each of the letters and more of what they mean. Don't forget to copy down you're homework.
01. What was the purpose of the Germanic people during the 1st Century BC to the 5th Century AD period? (5 points) 02. What was depicted as Period I? (5 points) 03. What kind of artifacts were found in the 200 year period? (5 points) 04. In magic means, what do most people use the runes for? (5 points) 05. Using this website, explaing the meaning of each letter and then explain in your own words what it means. Fehu, Gebo, and Wunjo. (20 points)
[div style="font-family:arial narrow;font-size:20px;text-align:right;letter-spacing:3px;font-style:bold;"][b]HOMEWORK LESSON TWO[/b][/div] [blockquote]01. What was the purpose of the Germanic people during the 1st Century BC to the 5th Century AD period? (5 points) - ANSWER HERE 02. What was depicted as Period I? (5 points) - ANSWER HERE 03. What kind of artifacts were found in the 200 year period? (5 points) - ANSWER HERE 04. In magic means, what do most people use the runes for? (5 points) - ANSWER HERE 05. Using [a href="http://sunnyway.com/runes/meanings.html"]this website[/a], explaing the meaning of each letter and then explain in your own words what it means. Fehu, Gebo, and Wunjo. (20 points) - ANSWER HERE[/blockquote]
Using the table found in you're homework, try to write our regular alphabet using the Elder Futhark runes. Note that there are two extra letters at the end of the Elder Futhark alphabet. (You don't need these two to get the points though, but if you do figure it out you will get extra karma!)
Post by Angel Knightwaters on Mar 15, 2018 9:46:16 GMT -7
LESSON THREE: STUDYING THE ALPHABETS
Welcome back to another lesson, we are going to start talking about each individual runic alphabet. Our objectives is to learn the meaning behind each letter, and how each alphabet differs from each other, as well as how they are the same.
THE ELDER FUTHARK
The Elder Futhark is the first runic alphabet we will be studying, and it consists of twenty-four runes that can be arranged in a group of eight. The earliest known sequence was found approximately in CE 400 and it was found on the Kylver Stone in Gotland, Sweden. Each rune had a name that was specific to it to represent the sound of the rune itself. However, each name was reconstructed names from the Proto-Germanic. The following is the alphabet for the Elder Futhark:
The next set of runes are the Anglo-Saxon runes and they were found around in the fifth century. Within the Anglo-Saxon runes comes a lot of different theories regarding the origins of the Anglo-Saxon runes. One of them includes the developing of the Alphabet in Frisa which then later had spread to England. Another theory included one that involved the Scandinavians as they introduced runes to Englad. It was said that after that happened the futhorc was then modified slightly and exported to Frisa. So there's no definite answer to where or how the Anglo-Saxon runes were developed. Below is the Anglo-Saxon Runes:
MARCOMANNIC RUNES & YOUNGER FUTHARK
A runic letter set comprising of a blend of Elder Futhark with Anglo-Saxon futhorc is recorded in a treatise called De Inventione Litterarum, attributed to Hrabanus Maurus and protected in 8th- and 9th-century original copies basically from the southern portion of the Carolingian Realm (Alemannia, Bavaria). The original copy content properties the runes to the Marcomanni, quos nos Nordmannos vocamus, and subsequently customarily, the letter set is called "Marcomannic runes", but it has no association with the Marcomanni, and or maybe is an endeavor of Carolingian researchers to speak to all letters of the Latin letter sets with runic reciprocals. Wilhelm Grimm talked about these runes in 1821.
The Younger Futhark, also called Scandinavian Futhark, is a diminished shape of the Elder Futhark, comprising of only 16 characters. The diminished connects with phonetic changes when Proto-Norse advanced into Old Norse. They are found in Scandinavia and Viking Age settlements overseas, this alphabet was probably used during the 9th century and onward. They are divided into long-branch (Danish) and short-twig (Swedish and Norwegian) runes. The distinction between the two adaptations is a matter of discussion. A common conclusion is that the contrast between them was useful.
MEDIEVAL RUNES & DALECARILIAN RUNES
In the Middle Ages, the Younger Futhark in Scandinavia was extended, so that it was once more contained one sign for each phoneme of the Old Norse dialect. Spotted variations of voiceless signs were presented to represent the comparing voiced consonants, or bad habit versa, voiceless variations of voiced consonants, and a few unused runes also showed up for vowel sounds. Engravings in medieval Scandinavian runes appear a expansive number of variation rune shapes, and a few letters, such as s, c, and z regularly were utilized traded.
Carl-Gustav Werner has quoted, "In the isolated province of Dalarna in Sweden a mix of runes and Latin letters had developed." The Dalecarlian runes came about in the 16th century and is in some use continuing through to the 20th century. However, it's a debate on whether their use was an unbroken tradition throughout this period, or whether people in the 19th & 20th centuries learned runes from books written on the subject. It was at the time used mainly for transcribing Elfdalian.
01. How many letters does the Elder Futhark contain? 02. What was the approximate date of when it was found? 03. When was the Anglo-Saxon Runes found? 04. Explain one or two theories on the Anglo-Saxon runes. 05. Which alphabet had a combination of the Elder Futhark and the Anglo-Saxon runes? 06. When were these rune talked about, and who talked about them? 07. What is the other name for the Younger Futhark? 08. When were the Dalecarlian runes found, and what is the alphabet used for?
01. How many letters does the Elder Futhark contain? - ANSWER HERE 02. What was the approximate date of when it was found? - ANSWER HERE 03. When was the Anglo-Saxon Runes found? - ANSWER HERE 04. Explain one or two theories on the Anglo-Saxon runes. - ANSWER HERE 05. Which alphabet had a combination of the Elder Futhark and the Anglo-Saxon runes? - ANSWER HERE 06. When were these rune talked about, and who talked about them? - ANSWER HERE 07. What is the other name for the Younger Futhark? - ANSWER HERE 08. When were the Dalecarlian runes found, and what is the alphabet used for? - ANSWER HERE
01. In you're own words, do you think that the Elder Futhark and the Anglo-Saxon runes are the same or different? Why or why not? 02. Which letters represent man in both of the runes? Is the symbol the same? 03. Which letters represent sun in both of the runes? Is the symbol the same? 04. In the Marcomannic runes, the letter m means man, are the symbols the same in the Marcomannic runes compared to the Anglo-Saxon and the Elder Futhark? Why or why not? 05. Using this website once more, we are going to find our partner runes. Follow the instructions by using you're character's name (on HOS) on the website and then come back to you're homework folder and type what you're partner rune is. Is the rune correct for you're character? Why or why not?
[div style="font-family:arial narrow;font-size:20px;text-align:right;letter-spacing:3px;font-style:bold;"][b]EXTRA CREDIT LESSON THREE[/b][/div] 01. In you're own words, do you think that the Elder Futhark and the Anglo-Saxon runes are the same or different? Why or why not? - ANSWER HERE 02. Which letters represent man in both of the runes? Is the symbol the same? - ANSWER HERE 03. Which letters represent sun in both of the runes? Is the symbol the same? - ANSWER HERE 04. In the Marcomannic runes, the letter m means man, are the symbols the same in the Marcomannic runes compared to the Anglo-Saxon and the Elder Futhark? Why or why not? - ANSWER HERE 05. Using [a href="http://the-oracle-answers.com/calculate-partner-rune/"]this website[/a] once more, we are going to find our partner runes. Follow the instructions by using you're character's name (on HOS) on the website and then come back to you're homework folder and type what you're partner rune is. Is the rune correct for you're character? Why or why not? - ANSWER HERE